- Joseph II
- (1741-1790)Joseph II was born in Vienna on 13 March 1741. Succeeding his mother Maria Theresa as emperor of Austria and ruler of the Austrian Netherlands in 1780, Joseph instituted far-reaching reforms that drew the ire of his Belgian subjects, who were wedded to traditional liberties or anxious to promote democracy. Embarking on a study tour, Joseph visited Brussels, arriving on 2 June 1781. Refusing to take part in public ceremonies, and accompanied only by an aide-de-camp, he visited hospitals and law courts and talked to the residents, many of whom found him cold and aloof.Appalled by the complex, apparently chaotic system of privileges and rights in existence in his Belgian lands and impatient for reform, he launched programs to abolish hereditary and ecclesiastical privileges in favor of creating a centralized, unified state. The Patent of Toleration (1781) guaranteed religious liberties for non-Roman Catholics, abolished contemplative religious orders and fraternal groups, and limited religious processions and carnivals. Edicts on 1 January 1787 revised the judicial and administrative system and decrees attacked the privileges of lawyers, a large and politically active group in Brussels. Opposition solidified among both Catholics and conservative leaders, as well as enlightened democrats. Joseph expressed astonishment at the level of resistance. He concentrated his wrath on "the insolent bourgeois, the Third Estate of Brussels." He threatened to move the capital to Ghent and authorized a military buildup in the city. Mounting discontent led to the Brabant Revolution in 1789. Joseph died on 20 February 1790, one month following the proclamation of an independent United States of Belgium.See also Austrian Regime.
Historical Dictionary of Brussels. Paul F. State.
Look at other dictionaries:
Joseph — Joseph … Deutsch Wörterbuch
JOSEPH — (Heb. יְהוֹסֵף, יוֹסֵף), son of jacob and Rachel. He was born in Paddan Aram after his mother had been barren for seven years (Gen. 29:20, 30; 30:22–24, 25; 31:41). Nothing is related of his childhood. Joseph and His Brothers At the age of 17… … Encyclopedia of Judaism
Joseph — • The eleventh son of Jacob, the firstborn of Rachel, and the immediate ancestor of the tribes of Manasses and Ephraim Catholic Encyclopedia. Kevin Knight. 2006. Joseph Joseph … Catholic encyclopedia
Joseph I. — Joseph oder auch Josef hießen folgende Herrscher: Inhaltsverzeichnis 1 Joseph I./II. 2 Joseph + weitere Namen 3 Kirchliche Herrscher 4 Nichtregenten // … Deutsch Wikipedia
Joseph II — Joseph oder auch Josef hießen folgende Herrscher: Inhaltsverzeichnis 1 Joseph I./II. 2 Joseph + weitere Namen 3 Kirchliche Herrscher 4 Nichtregenten // … Deutsch Wikipedia
joseph — ● joseph nom masculin (de Joseph Montgolfier, nom propre) Type de papier filtre. Joseph selon la Genèse, patriarche hébreu, 11e fils de Jacob et prem. fils de Rachel. Vendu par ses frères, il devint intendant de Putiphar, officier du pharaon puis … Encyclopédie Universelle
Joseph II — d Autriche Joseph II Empereur des Romains … Wikipédia en Français
Joseph II — • German Emperor (reigned 1765 90), of the House of Hapsburg Lorraine, son and successor of Maria Theresa and Francis I Catholic Encyclopedia. Kevin Knight. 2006. Joseph II Joseph II … Catholic encyclopedia
Joseph — may refer to:People with the name Joseph: * Joseph (name), about the given name * Joseph (surname), for people with the last name Joseph * Jose, shortened name * Saint Joseph (disambiguation), for saints named Joseph * Joseph (Hebrew Bible) *… … Wikipedia
JOSEPH — JOSEPH, pioneer family in Canadian business and Jewish life. The Canadian Jewish branch of the Joseph family (some converted to Catholicism and others intermarried with Protestants) was founded by HENRY JOSEPH (1775–1832), a nephew of Aaron Hart … Encyclopedia of Judaism
JOSEPH II° — (1741–1790), king of Germany (1764–90) and Holy Roman emperor (1765–90); co regent with his mother, maria theresa , until her death in 1780. Although educated in the spirit of the Enlightenment, he nevertheless remained a practicing Roman… … Encyclopedia of Judaism