Rising of 1421
   The rising of 1421 originated in a conflict between rival groups of lignages that stemmed from dual assassinations (see HEETVELDE). The city was riven by a factional division that pitted partisans of Duke John IV against those of the Estates of Brabant, including craftsmen. The latter rallied around the duke's younger brother Philip of Saint-Pol, whom the Estates recalled from exile in August 1420 and on whom they conferred the title of regent. John left Brussels on 30 September. He returned with an army composed largely of German knights and was granted entry to the city on 21 January 1421. Philip fled. He later returned with an army of his own, which joined with craftsmen, fearful of being massacred by John's supporters, to expel the forces of the duke. On 27 January 1421, craftsmen occupied the Grand' Place and crowds demonstrated before the Coudenberg Palace. On 29 January, the ex-amman Jan Clutinc was decapitated, ducal household members were arrested, and aldermen favorable to John were imprisoned or fled. The statute of 11 February 1421 brought a revolutionary change in city government by introducing democratic rule with reorganization of the crafts into nine political corps, the nations, that would participate in urban governance until the French regime. Philip accepted the statute as did John, who was subsequently reconciled with the Estates. John returned to Brussels on 11 October 1421.

Historical Dictionary of Brussels. .

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